You toss and turn all night struggling to breathe, then wake feeling exhausted. It may be caused by sleep apnea – but factors beyond anatomy could be to blame. Let’s investigate the overlooked nutritional deficiencies intricately tied to sleep apnea.
High Glucose: An Unlikely Sleep Apnea Culprit
While obesity is a well-known sleep apnea risk factor, the role of high blood glucose is less recognized. Eating lots of refined carbs and sugars elevates blood glucose.
A 2018 study found a direct correlation between hemoglobin A1C levels (a marker of long-term glucose) and sleep apnea severity. The higher the A1C, the more severe the sleep disturbances .
Sustained high glucose has a depleting effect on certain vitamins critical for healthy respiration. This represents a vicious cycle – poor sleep from apnea leads to elevated glucose and further vitamin depletion.
Why Your Brainstem Needs Vitamin B1
The brainstem regulates essential unconscious processes like heart rate, digestion, and critical – breathing.
Vitamin B1 (thiamine) maintains brainstem cell metabolism and function. It acts as a coenzyme for the production of ATP, our cellular energy molecule .
Without adequate thiamine, brainstem neurons cannot generate sufficient ATP to conduct signals properly. This can profoundly impact breathing centers.
How Thiamine Deficiency Disrupts Respiration
The phrenic nerve connects breathing centers in the brainstem to the diaphragm muscles. Signals from the brainstem prompt the diaphragm to expand and contract, inhaling and exhaling air.
Thiamine deficiency impairs this signaling between the brain and the diaphragm. As a result, breathing patterns become irregular during sleep. This manifests as obstructive or central sleep apnea.
Even mild thiamine insufficiency causes neurological issues that can worsen apnea. Correcting this nutritional deficiency could alleviate symptoms for some patients.
Warning Signs of Vitamin B1 Deficiency
Since we obtain vitamin B1 from foods, deficiency is rare in developed nations. But chronic alcoholism, anorexia, illness, obesity surgery and high-carb diets increase risk .
Signs of deficiency include:
- Fatigue, weakness and apathy
- Leg cramping
- Impaired cognition and memory
- Irregular heartbeat
- Swelling, numbness or tingling
- Dyspnea – labored breathing
Notice several mimic sleep apnea symptoms – fatigue, mental fog, breathing issues. Thiamine testing may be warranted for sleep apnea patients.
The Critical Role of Nutrition in Infancy
Babies require adequate thiamine to properly develop brainstem pathways that control respiration. Tragically, this vulnerability is linked to SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome).
SIDS cases spike at ages 2-4 months as maternally-acquired thiamine depots become depleted. Formulas fortified with thiamine prevent deficiency in breastfed infants .
This emphasizes establishing proper nutrition immediately after birth to safeguard respiratory health. Testing mothers for thiamine deficiency during pregnancy may also help.
Correcting Nutrient Shortfalls With Supplements
While a balanced whole foods diet provides sufficient thiamine for most, certain individuals require supplementation for adequate levels.
Unfortified nutritional yeast is an excellent natural source of B vitamins. Aim for 100-500 mg thiamine daily in divided doses. Work with a functional medicine practitioner to determine optimal intake.
B-complex supplements that contain thiamine, B6, B12 and folate may also mitigate deficiency. For alcoholics, thiamine shots or IV fluids help recover critically low levels.
Don’t overlook the potential role of nutritional deficiencies in disrupted sleep. Confirming adequate vitamin status through testing and diet should be part of any sleep apnea evaluation or treatment plan.